Author's Diction~Vipin Behari Goyal: Classroom


Classroom: Welcome to the Student of Literature to learn the work of great authors and poets who contributed to enrich the treasure.
(The content belongs to original writers)

Explanation By Dr. S. Rajimwale

Lord Tennyson gives through the poem “Ulysses” the essential philosophy of ceaseless action which contrast with a move of his other famous poem “The Lotus Eater”. While in the latter poem the sailors express in one voice their reluctance to move and act, in this poem the single voice of the spirited old hero named Ulysses expresses his unquenchable thirst for more action and greater experience. His perception of life is that if a man has strong will no burden can stop him.All those natural processes which slow down our reflections and weaken our desire to act are bravely defined by Ulysses. He is ready to give up his kinship in order to go on travel over hazardous seasons for exploring new lands. He knows that knowledge is without limits and it is through a large number of experiences that one can gather more rich knowledge. Experiences are compared to the arch through which one can see many other areas waiting to be explored. Ulysses does not become tired, because his spirit is ever young and strong. He has set eyes on higher goals and intends to use the last breath before dying to enrich his life with more knowledge. He himself says that his identity is his work.It does not matter whether in the process of travelling his ship sinks into the water or takes him successfully to the new land. Through the character the poet conveys to us the essential meaning of life. Most of the people would feel satisfied with what they have done and want to spend old age in rest and peace. For the poet a person’s spirit should be able to overcome the forces of obstruction and seek for greater heroic deeds.

 The Windhover ~ A poem by
 Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844–89)

 To Christ our Lord

 I CAUGHT this morning morning’s minion, king-
dom of daylight’s dauphin, dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon, in his riding
Of the rolling level underneath him steady air, and striding
High there, how he rung upon the rein of a wimpling wing
In his ecstasy! then off, off forth on swing,
    As a skate’s heel sweeps smooth on a bow-bend: the hurl and gliding
Rebuffed the big wind. My heart in hiding
Stirred for a bird,—the achieve of; the mastery of the thing!

Brute beauty and valour and act, oh, air, pride, plume, here
Buckle! AND the fire that breaks from thee then, a billion
       Times told lovelier, more dangerous, O my chevalier!

No wonder of it: shéer plód makes plough down sillion
Shine, and blue-bleak embers, ah my dear,
Fall, gall themselves, and gash gold-vermillion.

Summary of the poem by eminent Professor S. K. Rajimwale, English Department, JNV University, Jodhpur

English Department, JNV University Jodhpur

Although Hopkins belong to the Victorian Period, he is generally considered as far ahead of his time. For his age he was unconventionally selecting his theme with great care for the asthetic beauty. He was also noted for initiating bold experiments with form and language.

The poem entitledThe Windover is one of the most popular and extensively quoted poems of Hopkins. It expresses the poets intense fascination with the flight of the bird which is not very beautiful but has other remarkable qualities. The poem opens with a simple statement of the poet catching sight of the bird in the sky.

He calls it the most favoured being of the morning, and gives him the grace of the being the inheritor of majestic authority. Having already given it the qualities of majestic personality , Hopkins describes the minute aspects of its flight. It appears that the bring over is in the highest of joy controlling the air on which it flies like a horse rider, it command of his horse. In the fifth line of the poem steady flight suddenly breaks into sweeping curves in which the bird swings as it skates heel,sweeps the semi circular bend. The whole description in next three lines relieves the deep interest that poet takes in close observation of its various turns and twists. An ordinary bird is thus transformed  into an object of great pleasure and beauty.Gliding the upsurge of air the bird appears to defy it, which is symbolic of the royal personalities command over everything. Towards the end of first stanza the poet is so overwhelmed with joy that he cannot help saying that his heart was moved emotionally by this glorious scene. In his eyes it was the perfect achievement and mastery of the king.

The next stanza goes beyond the mere physical aspect of the bird’s beauty. The poem uses three words, brute, beauty, and valour, to bring out the inner strength of those gifts which are given to it by God.From bird the poet focus attention on God’s creation. We are reminded of William Blake two poems , ‘The Tiger’ and ‘The Land’ in which poet makes a similar attempt to understand God’s hand in creating the most fierce and most timid animal. As Blake says that the light in the tiger’s eyes have the same brightness that we see in stars in the night sky. So Hopkin also says brilliance of energy which we see in ‘Windover’ is the same that we find in the soil which is turned over by the action of plough. Hopkins was a visionary poet whose eyes searched God blessings in the most ordinary things. In the superlative destruction of the “Windover” we must understand that his poetic insight is nothing but dedication to Jesus Christ, that is why subtitle of the poem is “To Christ our Lord”.

Felix Randal Explained By Professor S.K.Rajimwale on 19 September 2015

             Felix Randal by Gerard Manley Hopkins

FELIX RANDAL the farrier, O he is dead then? my duty all ended,

Who have watched his mould of man, big-boned and hardy-handsome

Pining, pining, till time when reason rambled in it and some

Fatal four disorders, fleshed there, all contended?

Sickness broke him. Impatient he cursed at first, but mended
Being anointed and all; though a heavenlier heart began some

Months earlier, since I had our sweet reprieve and ransom

Tendered to him. Ah well, God rest him all road ever he offended!

This seeing the sick endears them to us, us too it endears.

My tongue had taught thee comfort, touch had quenched thy tears,
Thy tears that touched my heart, child, Felix, poor Felix Randal;

How far from then forethought of, all thy more boisterous years,

When thou at the random grim forge, powerful amidst peers,

Didst fettle for the great grey drayhorse his bright and battering sandal!


Felix Randal was a blacksmith like the Joe Gargery brother in law of Pip the main character  in Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. Like Grgery, Randal is also honest and hard working.
Felix lived in Liverpool and died of T.B. at an early age in the year 1889. The poems of Hopkins were arranged to be published in the year 1918 posthumously by his good friend Robert Bridges.
One of the main characteristics of Hopkins poem is Sprung Rhythm.
In Iambic pentameter unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable. This is most commonly used rhythm used in English poetry and verse drama. In sprung rhythm stressed syllable  is followed by indeterminate number of unstressed syllable. Hopkins usually kept unstressed syllable limited to four.
In this poem ‘random grim forge, powerful amidst peers’ and ‘didst fettle for the great grey drayhorse’ are the examples of sprung rhythm.
Inscape” and “instress” are other two important characterstics of Hopkins poems. He explained “inscape” as uniquness that differentiate anything from all other things, and instress  is force of being which holds the inscape together or the impulse from the inscape which carries it whole in the mind of
The example of ‘inner unity of the object’ or ‘inner being of the things is ‘brute beauty’ in ‘windhover’.
Another beauty in the poem is probing descriptions. Poet reaches to the very heart of the matter, or the kernel of the matter.
Anointed word is used to signify christian rituals of application of oil on forehead and eucharist in which bread and red wine are consecrated and consumed in remembrance of Jesus death.
Bright and battering sandals has two interpretations. When horseshoes are fixed they become bright and battering and also when horse walks on cobblestones the sparks caused makes sandal look bright and battering.

The whole poem is beautiful recollection of reminiscences of religious duties performed by poet as priest.

Dr. S.K. Harit Asso. Professor taught Derek Walcott Nobel Lecture 1992


The complete text of the lecture along with analysis is available here.

Dr.Hitendra Goyal taught "A portrait of the artist as a young man" by James Joyce

English Department,JNV University Jodhpur
Dr. Hitendra Goyal
A portrait of the artist as young man

James Joyce

It was first novel by Irish writer James Joyce. It is semi autobiographical novel written in stream of consciousness narrative style. The story is about intellectual and spiritual awakening of young boy Stephan Dedalus. It is both Kunstlerroman that is novel about an artist and a Bildungsroman means a novel about development and education. It is classical novel which not only deals with emerging Irish state but also with intricacies of conscience, art, feeling and being.
Stephan has started showing his special interest in the world of imagination. Later in this chapter we watch him at a Christmas dinner. He listens to the elders talking and arguing over politics.
The Chapter ends in a dramatic passion. During the study hour Stephan is unjustly thrashed by Perfect of studies. Stephan is overwhelmed by injustice and what has happened to him.His reaction is courageous and a sign of what Stephan is going to become. He goes to the Rector’s chamber and lodges a complaint.His schoolmates acclaimed his heroic action.Stephan experiences the act of complaining to the Rector in a special way. It is a magical moment  for him. Stephan would later describe the magical experience as an epiphany (manifestation of the divine to human being). The concept of epiphany is relevant to Stephan’s progress towards artistic vocation. In the world of religion, epiphany means manifestation of divine to human being. Joyce, makes special use of his concept of epiphany. To Joyce the artist , epiphany is a sublime moment when the situation in life takes on the quality of art.
In the second part of the narrative, we find Stephan Dedalus’s family living in poverty. The family has moved to Dublin. Stephan’s artistic evolution continues. He is increasingly fascinated with words.

He has become the best essay writer in school. He developed the habit of viewing the real world through words.A significant tension grows within himself. It is tension between his romantic aspiration and unsatisfactory environment in which he finds himself. This tension serves to promote his artistic growth. To be continued...

Dr.Rakhi Vyas

Post-Colonial literature in English- Canadian

Atwood - If you can't say something nice; Don't say anything at all

Read the original text here

Dr.Vivek,Asstt.Professor JNV University,Jodhpur

Letter written by Raja Ram Mohan Roy to Lord Amherst 

 Raja ram Mohan Roy was an Indian social and educational reformer. He was the  founder of  Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta in 1828.The title Raja was conferred on him by           Mughal Emperors. He advocated western education and wrote a letter to Lord Amherst the then Governor General to replace Sanskrit education by Western Education.
                                  Read letter here

Gandhi and Socialism

Read the article here

The Absurd Drama By Martin Esslin

"The Caretaker" By Harold Pinter and "Waiting for Godot" were taught in the classroom.

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